India is an attack on all of your senses, from the chaotic cities to the spiritual Puga festivals on the banks of the Ganges. A wonderful mix of culture and traditions that is completely different to the western world. The way to best enjoy India is to absorb it - the warmth of the people, the beauty, the smells, the food, and the wonderful hospitality!

India is an extraordinary country. Religious temples abound in tiny villages and streets throughout India, and the people are some of the most friendly and compassionate around. Your stay is sure to be one of the most heart-warming experiences you'll ever have!

  • Friendly yet Formal

  • Often hot yet often cool

  • Vast yet Beautiful

  • Poor and Wealthy

  • A land of contrasts!

India, officially Known as ‘Republic of India’ (in Hindi known as Bharat or Hindustan), is the seventh largest and second most populous country in the world. India is vast and has a huge population of 1 billion. At times it can feels as if the whole population is in the same place at the same time as you! You will become fascinated with India, its cultures, its people, and the continuous stream of activity going on around you.

Religion plays an important role in the life of the country, and is one of the few countries in the world which have such an ancient and diverse culture. Here arts and crafts are world renowned with sport being one of their favourite past times, and cricket still acting as one of the most popular activities.

India is a great country and you will definitely feel great when you explore this country.


There is euphoria in the whole world about India. India's economy and growth is the talk everywhere. Many revolutions are happening. First liberalisation of indian economy, then software boom and finally telecom revolution. There is a march towards knowledge based growth where service sector will have significant place. India' leadership in the form President A.P.J. Abdul kalam and prime Minister Manmohan Singh is major asset. I have been to the two good city of India . Mumbai and Nagpur.Here I can see India transforming into a developed country. Big roads , better tranporation, decent electricity and water, good and knowledgeable people, is what I believe is the evidence of India's growth. I am sure rural areas are also tranforming though not as fast as metros. But surely there life of people is changing.

The reason of difference of growth between Rural and Urban areas is empowered people and PSI (private sector initiative). Empowered people means educated peolple who know what are their rights and what they expect from the government. They force the Govt. to do its duty.If govt. is not performing well they vote them out, approach courts to get justice; and Private sector for the service and always struggle and work hard to get what they deserve. They are quick, learn from their and others ' experience, read a lot and always remain aware of current developments. This enlightenment is due to two reasons , one is the education and secondly their environment. their growth is continous and that is why they are becoming richer and more powerful.
On the other hand rural areas are suffering from collateral side effects of redgressing backwardness. They are becoming more and more poor and less powerful though they are getting benefits of capitalistic consumerism but still they don't have money to buy even basic and cheap commodity. Reasons: history, lack of education and awareness, poor infrastructure( like roads, electricity, water etc), less support from urban counterparts and govt. , big family and sustainance on primary sector only like agriculture and horticulture, lack of funds and capital , very less access to banks and financial institutions. Hence their backwardness is increasing day by day and class struggle is taking roots. Rich are bent on preserving thier stuffs while poors are forced to take other m


Technological discoveries and applications in India

The earliest evidence of technological progress in the Indian subcontinent is to be found in the remains of the Harappan civilization (4000-3000 BC). Archaeological remains point to the existence of well-planned urban centres that boasted of private and public dwellings laid out in orderly fashion along with roads and drainage systems complementing them. The drainage systems were particularly remarkable for the times since they were built underground and were constructed in a manner to allow for regular cleaning. Smaller drains from private homes connected to the larger public drains.

Larger private dwellings were invariably multi-storied and all homes were constructed from standardized fired bricks and provided for separate cooking areas and toilets. Storage facilities for grain and goods for trade were built as were public baths and other buildings intended for various public functions.

Urban centres were often planned near riverine or sea-ports. Accurate weights and measures were in use and ports such as Lothal were developed as export centres of early manufactured products from smelted copper and bronze. Kilns for smelting copper ingots and casting tools were in existence as were metal tools such as curved or circular saws, pierced needles and most significantly, bronze drills with twisted grooves. The drill enabled the production of items with unparalleled precision for the times and could be regarded as an ancient precursor of the modern machine tool.

There is also evidence of planned irrigation systems and it appears that fire and flood control measures to protect farms and villages were also in place. Artisans made use of the wheel and clay pottery was decorated in a variety of colors and designs. Cotton was grown and used to produce textiles.

Urban centres in the Harappan region traded with each other as well as with counterparts in Babylon, the Persian Gulf, Egypt and possibly the Mediteranean. The span of the Harappan civilization was quite extensive, and included much of modern Sindh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Western UP.

But prior to it's disappearance, there is also evidence of considerable social decay and disintegration. Excavations from the later phases of the Harappan civilization suggest that population pressures led to greater anarchy in building construction. Urban dwellings became smaller and settlements became more haphazard indicating a breakdown of social mores and structures that promoted urban regulations and enforced construction codes.

Social Conditions and Technological Progress

It is quite possible that the decline in civil society extended to other areas such as agricultural planning and maintenance of irrigations systems making the civilization more vulnerable to natural disasters such droughts, floods, fires or earthquakes - thus contributing to the eventual extinction of that vibrant civilization. This suggests that technological progress cannot be divorced from social conditions that may either encourage the progress of technology or conversely cause civilizations that may be (in relative terms) quite advanced to stagnate and even decline.

For instance, 3000 years after Harappa, we find anecdotal evidence of impressive urban settlements constructed during the Mauryan period. Greek travellers have left behind admiring descriptions of Patliputra - the Mauryan capital. But social strife brought a precipitous end to the grand civilization. The growth of a parasitic, exploitative and socially oppressive elite led to massive social upheavals. In the course of the civil wars, fires and looting destroyed virtually all of the wood-based dwellings including grand palaces and public buildings.

Thus, an entire tradition of wood-based urban construction - (which may have taken several centuries to develop) was destroyed. But it also led to a greater emphasis on the use of more lasting construction materials. The very social conditions that destroyed technological progress in one direction gave birth to technological progress in another. Sculptural finds from the Mauryan period indicate that Mauryan sculptors of that time had achieved a high degree of proficiency in working with stone. They must have had tools and implements that enabled them to create smoothly modelled and highly polished representations of human and animal figures. Later civilizations in India employed these skills not only for the purposes of sculpting but for creating entire monuments constructed from a variety of hard building materials. For instance, various methods for preparing cements were developed, and by the 7th century, cement of highly durable quality came into use in the construction of important monuments that survive to this day.

The Impetus for Metallurgy

Monumental architecture required considerable advances in the technology of lifting, loading and transportation of construction materials, building construction ramps, scaffolding, and related tools and implements. As in ancient Egypt or Babylon, appropriate techniques also had to be developed and implemented in India. But more importantly, stone-based construction presupposes the existence of hard metal based tools and implements for cutting and shaping stone. The discovery of iron thus played an essential role in the development of monumental architecture in India which may have in turn given a further impetus to the development of metallurgical skills.

As early as the 4th C. BC, Kautilya's Arthashastra had a section outlining the processes for metal extraction and alloying. Later Sanskrit texts talk about assessing metal purity and describe techniques for achieving metal purity. Various alloying techniques were in use and some may have had their origin in the Harappan or Vedic periods. (For instance, there are references in the Vedic literature that suggest that copper vessels were coated with tin so as to prevent milk from going sour.)

A combination of scholarly investigation and broad dissemination of practical techniques propelled the development of metallurgical skills. The fifth century Iron Pillar of Delhi is a remarkable example of those skills. Standing over 23 feet high it consists of a single piece of iron and has weathered over 1500 monsoons without showing any signs of rust. The pillar is made of wrought iron with an iron content of 99.72 % and appears to have been protected from rust by the application of a thin coating of manganese dioxide.

By the 12th century, construction engineers were using iron girders and beams on a scale unknown in any other part of the world. The most significant use of iron beams was in the temples of Puri and Konarak. The Puri temple contains 239 iron beams and one of the beams in Konarak is 35 feet long. All are 99.64 percent iron and were produced in a similiar manner to the Delhi iron pillar.

During the middle ages, India acquired a reputation for producing very high quality steel and was also able to extract zinc from it's ore by the 14th century. Bidari (an alloy of copper, lead and tin developed in the Deccan) was also extensively used.

Unsurprisingly, developments in metallurgy also had their impact on artillery production. According to A. Rahman (Science in Medieval India), by the 16th century, the heaviest guns in the world were being cast in India and a variety of weapons were being manufactured in the subcontinent. The Jaigarh cannon factory was one of India's best and before the crucial battle of 1857, the Jaipur Rajputs laid claim to owning Asia's largest cannon. Yet, none of the Rajput cannons were ever used to confront the British who succeeded in conquering the sub-continent without ever having to fight against the country's best equipped armies, thus demonstrating that technological progress is not an end in itself.

Social Needs and Technological Applications

More often than not, social needs (as arising from geographic, climactic or living conditions) have been the primary impetus for technological progress in society. The long dry months that most regions of India had to deal with led to numerous innovations in water-management techniques. Irrigation canals, wells of different types, storage tanks and a variety of water-harvesting techniques were developed throughout the sub-continent. The Harappans were not alone in creating water-management solutions. Irrigation works of enormous size were undertaken time and time again. The reservoirs at Girnar in Kathiawar (built in the 3rd C. BC) had an embankment over 100 ft thick at the base. The artificial lake at Bhojpur (near Bhopal) commisioned by Raja Bhoj in the 11th C covered 250 sq. miles. In the South, also in the 11th C., an artificial lake fed by the Kaveri river had a 16-mile long embankment with stone sluices and irrigation channels. Rajput kings built artificial lakes throughout the desert state of Rajasthan, but irrigation schemes were essential to agricultural prosperity even in Kashmir, Bengal and the delta regions of the South.

The need for accurate prediction of the monsoons spurred developments in astronomy while the intense heat of the summer led to innovations in architecture. In Rajasthan and Gujarat step-wells were built deep into the ground - sometimes descending as much as a hundred feet and large scale observatories were built in Benaras, Mathura and Ujjain to facilitate advances in the astronomical sciences. Bengal became known for it's fine muslins that were light and airy to wear in the warm and humid climate of the state. Techniques for pickling and preserving fruits, vegetables, fish and meats were developed throughout the country to prevent or delay spoilage. Manually operated cooling devices were also invented. The Arthashatra mentions the variyantra (probably a revolving water spray for cooling the air). Technology thus arose in response to compelling material needs.

Scientific Rationalism and Technological Efficacy

But technological progress also requires a favorable social milieu. A foundation of scientific knowledge, rational thinking and practical experimentation can be essential to the process of making technological discoveries (although the application of already known technologies can occur more easily). As mentioned in the essay: Development of Philosophical Thought and Scientific Method in Ancient India numerous technological inventions occurred in parallel with developments in rational philosophy and advances in mathematics and natural sciences.

This is not to say that Indian society was entirely rational. In all ancient societies (and even modern ones), superstitions, religious beliefs, reliance on astrology, numerology or the advice of 'seers', palmists and fortune-tellers have impinged on the scientific process and consequently hindered the progress of technology. In the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Babylon and India - we see numerous instances of scientifically accurate statements and practical truths mixed up with religious myths and popular superstitions. This was especially true in the science of medicine. Genuine cures were listed with unscientific practices without clear distinction. But during the rational period in India the emphasis on the scientific method led to a much greater level of veracity with respect to the efficacy of different medicines and medical procedures.

The more accurately the Indian medical practitioner was able to observe reality, understand bodily functions and test the efficacy of popular medical techniques, the more successful were the prescribed cures. Dissection of corpses and careful monitoring of different diseases was an important component in the study and practice of medicine. With greater success in treatment came greater confidence and allowed medical practitioners to conduct surgical procedures using a variety of surgical tools - albeit primitive in comparison to modern surgical equipment.

Procedures for inducing unconsciousness or numbing body parts that were to be operated on were required and developed. Tools for excision, incision, puncturing, probing, organ or part extraction, fluid drainage, bloodletting, suturing and cauterization were developed. Various types of bandages and ointments were used as were basic procedures for ensuring cleanliness and limiting contamination. The caesarian section was known, bone-setting reached a high degree of skill, and plastic surgery developed far beyond anything known elsewhere at the time. Indian surgeons also became proficient at the repair of noses, ears and lips lost or injured in battle or by judicially mandated mutilation. By the 1st C. AD the foundations of this rather evolved medical system were in place and by the 4th C. - much of this knowledge was standardized and available in the classical textbooks of Charaka and Susruta.

While all ancient societies cherished and admired the skills of the medical practitioner, it was the more determined adoption of the scientific approach that enabled Indian medicine to make a quantum leap over the older medical systems of the time.

{Progress in medicine also led to developments in chemistry and chemical technologies. The manufacture of alkaline substances, medicinal powders, ointments and liquids was systematized, as were chemical processes relating to the manufacture of glass. Advances in food processing (such as manufacture of sugar, condiments and edible oils) took place as did the manufacture of personal hygiene products and beauty aids (such as shampoos, deodorizers, perfumes and cosmetics).}

Cultural Mores and Technological Innovation

Cultural preferences also impelled technological innovations. During the rational period, considerable attention was paid to human psychological processes. The analysis of moods and emotions led to elaborate theories on the role of color and design in inducing psychological well-being. Treatises on art and architecture emphasized the importance of color. As a result, the use of color in decorating household artifacts, textiles, furniture, and public and private dwellings became widely prevalent and a matter of conscious choice.

Discoveries concerning the manufacture and application of natural and artificial dyes quickly followed. Block printing, tie and dye, and other textile-dyeing techniques were popularized. The use of mordents in color-fast dyeing of textiles became known as did the knowledge of lacquers that could be applied to wood


Development of Philosophical Thought and Scientific Method in Ancient India

Contrary to the popular perception that Indian civilization has been largely concerned with the affairs of the spirit and "after-life", India's historical record suggests that some of the greatest Indian minds were much more concerned with developing philosophical paradigms that were grounded in reality. The premise that Indian philosophy is founded solely on mysticism and renunciation emanates from a colonial and orientalist world view that seeks to obfuscate a rich tradition of scientific thought and analysis in India.

Much of the evidence for how India's ancient logicians and scientists developed their theories lies buried in polemical texts that are not normally thought of as scientific texts. While some of the treatises on mathematics, logic, grammar, and medicine have survived as such - many philosophical texts enunciating a rational and scientific world view can only be constructed from extended references found in philosophical texts and commentaries by Buddhist and Jain monks or Hindu scholars (usually Brahmins).

Although these documents are usually considered to lie within the domain of religious studies, it should be pointed out that many of these are in the form of extended polemics that are quite unlike the holy books of Christianity or Islam. These texts attempt to debate the value of the real-world versus the spiritual-world. They attempt to counter the theories of the atheists and other skeptics. But in their attempts to prove the primacy of a mystical soul or "Atman" - they often go to great lengths in describing competing rationalist and worldly philosophies rooted in a more realistic and more scientific perception of the world. Their extensive commentaries illustrate the popular methods of debate, of developing a hypothesis, of extending and elaborating theory, of furnishing proofs and counter-proofs.

It is also important to note that originally, the Buddhist world view was an essentially atheistic world view. The ancient Jains were agnostics, and within the broad stream of Hinduism - there were several heterodox currents that asserted a predominantly atheistic view. In that sense, these were not religions as we think of today since the modern understanding of religion presumes faith or belief in a super-natural entity.

That so many scholars from each of these philosophical schools felt the imperative to prove their extra-worldly theories using rationalist tools of deductive and inductive logic suggests that faith in a super-natural being could not have been taken for granted. This is borne out by the memoirs of Hieun Tsang (the Chinese chronicler who traveled extensively in India during the 7th C. AD) who describes the merchants of Benaras as being mostly "unbelievers"! He also wrote of intense polemics and debates amongst followers of different Buddhist sects.

Similiarly, there is other evidence that suggests that amongst the intellectuals of ancient India, atheism and skepticism must have been very powerful currents that required repeated and vigorous attempts at persuasion and change. Nevertheless, over centuries, the intellectual discords between the believers and non-believers became more and more muted. The advocates of mystic idealism prevailed over the skeptics, so that eventually, (at the popular level) each of these philosophies functioned as traditional religions with their pantheon of gods and goddesses enticing and lulling most into an intellectual stupor. But at no point were the advocates of "pure faith" ever powerful enough to completely extinguish the rationalist current that had so imbued Indian philosophy.

Early Rationalist Schools
One of the most ancient of India's rationalist traditions is the "Lokayata". Maligned and discredited by the evangelicals of mystical Buddhism and Vedantic Hinduism, their world view was sharply atheistic and scientific for their time. Unlike those who believed in reincarnation or an after-life, and in the indestructibility of the human soul - they refused to make artificial distinctions between body and mind. They saw the human mind as part and parcel of the human body - not as some separate entity that could have an independent existence from the human body. They acknowledged nothing but the material human body and the material universe around it. They rejected sacrificial gifts and offerings for the after-life as was common amongst followers of Brahmanical Hinduism during the time of Medhatithi in A.D 900 (a commentator on the writings of Manu who acknowledges that the Lokayatas were atheists or non-believers.)

For instance, they ridiculed the Brahmanical rituals of animal sacrifice: "If a beast slain in the Jyotistoma rite itself goes to heaven, Why then does not the sacrificer also offer his father?"

"If beings in heaven are gratified by our offerings made here, Then why not give the food down below to those who stand on the housetop?"

"If offerings produce gratification to beings who are dead, why make provisions for travellers when they start on a journey?"

"If he who departs from the body goes to another world, How is it that he comes not back again, restless for love of his kindred?"

The Lokayatas dismissed the Vedic priests and their Vedic mantras as nothing but a means of livelihood for those lacking in genuine physical or mental abilities. Instead, they gave primacy to human sense-perception, and through the application of the inferential process - they developed their theories of how the world worked.

One of the most notable aspects of the Lokayata belief system was their intuitive understanding of dialectics in nature. Many argued the mind-body separation as follows: Since the body is made up of things lacking consciousness - but the mind is a conscious entity - mind and body must necessarily be different - and consciousness must imply the existence of something else akin to the "soul". The Lokayatas countered this by citing the example of fermentation - how an intoxicating drink could be produced from something that was not itself an intoxicant. In essence they had discovered the principle that the whole was greater than the sum of it's parts. That physical and chemical processes could lead to dramatic changes in the properties of the substances combined. They were able to understand how special transformations could produce new qualities that were not evident in the constituent elements of the newly-created entity.

As keen observers of nature, they were probably amongst the first to understand the nature of different plants and herbs and their utility to human well-being. As such, it is likely that Indian medicine gradually evolved from the early scientific knowledge and understanding of the Lokayatas. Since the Lokayatas believed that consciousness emerged from the living human body, and ended with it's death - it is more than likely that the widely prevalent Indian custom of cremating the dead also originated amongst them.

This is not to say that the Lokayatas' understanding of the world was as elaborate and precise as that provided by today's science. By the standards of the 20th century, some of their formulations could be considered primitive and inadequate. That is only to be expected. Knowledge of science has expanded considerably since their times. But what is more important is that their world view was driven by a rational and scientific approach.

For instance, some later philosophical schools countered the Lokayata arguments concerning mind-body unity by bringing up the evidence of memory. Nyaya-Vaisesika philosophers like Jayanta and Udayana pointed out that the process of daily eating meant that the human body was constantly changing. The process of ageing also pointed to how the human body was ever-changing. Yet, an old person could remember in detail an incident from childhood. In other words - they tried to argue that memory was evidence of a human soul that existed beyond the mere physical body. Yet, we know today that memory is but a combination of proteins that can survive the length of human existence. There is both continuity and change in nature. The Lokayata world view howsoever sketchy and incomplete was not in contradiction with modern science.

If some of their characterizations required later revisions or refinement, or even corrections, it didn't take away from their fundamentally scientific approach. Their inadequacies were a consequence of incomplete knowledge and the understandable inability to see all the complexities of nature that we are now able (through advanced scientific instruments and centuries of accumulated knowledge). Their errors did not, however, stem from stubborn faith or deliberate rejection of reality and real-world phenomenon.

In practice, (according to some historians) India's ancient Tantric followers may have also had a largely rational world view, which sprang from a practical mindset and was impaired only by the limited amount of scientific knowledge available to humanity at that time. Critics of the tantrics dismissed them as sexually obsessed hedonists. But they failed to acknowledge that the early tantrics had an intuitive scientific streak and their understanding of sexual reproduction is probably what may have also impelled them to develop basic agricultural tools and other implements. In that sense, they were India's early technologists.

The Age of Science and Reason
But even amongst those Indian philosophers who accepted the separation of mind and body and argued for the existence of the soul, there was considerable dedication to the scientific method and to developing the principles of deductive and inductive logic. From 1000 B.C to the 4th C A.D (also described as India's rationalistic period) treatises in astronomy, mathematics, logic, medicine and linguistics were produced. The philosophers of the Sankhya school, the Nyaya-Vaisesika schools and early Jain and Buddhist scholars made substantial contributions to the growth of science and learning. Advances in the applied sciences like metallurgy, textile production and dyeing were also made.

In particular, the rational period produced some of the most fascinating series of debates on what constitutes the "scientific method": How does one separate our sensory perceptions from dreams and hallucinations? When does an observation of reality become accepted as fact, and as scientific truth? How should the principles of inductive and deductive logic be developed and applied? How does one evaluate a hypothesis for it's scientific merit? What is a valid inference? What constitutes a scientific proof?

These and other questions were attacked with an unexpected intellectual vigour. As keen observers of nature and the human body, India's early scientist/philosophers studied human sensory organs, analyzed dreams, memory and consciousness. The best of them understood dialectics in nature - they understood change, both in quantitative and qualitative terms - they even posited a proto-type of the modern atomic theory. It was this rational foundation that led to the flowering of Indian civilization.

This is borne out by the testaments of important Greek scientists and philosophers of that period. Pythagoras - the Greek mathematician and philosopher who lived in the 6th C B.C was familiar with the Upanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the Sulva Sutras. (The famous Pythagoras theorem is actually a restatement of a result already known and recorded by earlier Indian mathematicians). Later, Herodotus (father of Greek history) was to write that the Indians were the greatest nation of the age. Megasthenes - who travelled extensively through India in the 4th C. B.C also left extensive accounts that paint India in highly favorable light (for that period).

Intellectual contacts between ancient Greece and India were not insignificant. Scientific exchanges between Greece and India were mutually beneficial and helped in the development of the sciences in both nations. By the 6th C. A.D, with the help of ancient Greek and Indian texts, and through their own ingenuity, Indian astronomers made significant discoveries about planetary motion. An Indian astronomer - Aryabhata, was to become the first to describe the earth as a sphere that rotated on it's own axis. He further postulated that it was the earth that rotated around the sun and correctly described how solar and lunar eclipses occurred.

Because astronomy required extremely complicated mathematical equations, ancient Indians also made significant advances in mathematics. Differential equations - the basis of modern calculus were in all likelihood an Indian invention (something essential in modeling planetary motions). Indian mathematicians were also the first to invent the concept of abstract infinite numbers - numbers that can only be represented through abstract mathematical formulations such as infinite series - geometric or arithmetic. They also seemed to be familiar with polynomial equations (again essential in advanced astronomy) and were the inventors of the modern numeral system (referred to as the Arabic numeral system in Europe).

The use of the decimal system and the concept of zero was essential in facilitating large astronomical calculation and allowed such 7th C mathematicians as Brahmagupta to estimate the earth's circumferance at about 23,000 miles - (not too far off from the current calculation). It also enabled Indian astronomers to provide fairly accurate longitudes of important places in India.

The science of Ayurveda - (the ancient Indian system of healing) blossomed in this period. Medical practitioners took up the dissection of corpses, practised surgery, developed popular nutritional guides, and wrote out codes for medical procedures and patient care and diagnosis. Chemical processes associated with the dying of textiles and extraction of metals were studied and documented. The use of mordants (in dyeing) and catalysts (in metal-extraction/purification) was discovered.

The scientific ethos also had it's impact on the arts and literature. Painting and sculpture flourished even as there were advances in social infrastructure. Universities were set up with dormitories and meeting halls. In addition, according to the Chinese traveller, Hieun Tsang, roads were built with well-marked signposts. Shade trees were planted. Inns and hospitals dotted national highways so as to facilitate travel and trade.

India's rational age was thus a period of tremendous intellectual ferment and vitality. It was a period of scientific discovery and technological innovation. Accompanied by challenges to caste discrimination and rigidity and religious obscurantism - it was also a period of great social upheaval that eventually led to society becoming more democratic, allowing greater social interaction between members of different castes and expanding opportunities for social mobility amongst the population. Social ethics drew considerable attention in this period. Rules of engagement during war were constructed so as to eliminate non-military casualties and destruction of pasture-land, crop-land or orchards. The notion of chivalry in war was popularized - it meant not attacking fleeing or injured soldiers. It also required warring armies to provide safe passage to women, children, the elderly and other non-combatants.

The rational period thus saw progress on several fronts. Not only did it create an enduring foundation for India's civilization to develop and mature - it has also had it's impact on the growth of other civilizations. In fact, India's rational period served as a vital link in the long and varied chain of human progress. Although colonial history has attempted to usurp this collective heritage of the planet and make it exclusively euro-centric, it is important to note that fundamental and important discoveries in science and innovations in technology have come from many different parts of the globe, albeit at different times and stages of world civilization. India made significant contributions in this regard. If India is to fully recover from the depredations of colonial rule, it is imperative that we don't forget the achievements of this inspiring epoch.

Note: References to Greece and India are used in a very broad way. In the ancient world, the 'Greek' world included most Mediterranean nations - including those of North Africa, Palestine, modern-day Turkey, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. References to India apply to the general expanse of the sub-continent.

For a somewhat more detailed outline of the different rational schools and their emergence in India, see Philosophical development from Upanishadic theism to scientific realism which outlines the epistemology of the Nyaya school, the Jain system of Syadavada, theories of causality and the atomic theories of Jain and Buddhist philosophers

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